The Volvo D5 is a type of turbocharged diesel engine developed by Volvo Car Corporation for use in its passenger cars. The D5 engine is based on Volvo Modular engine, one of the most compact and strongest engine blocks on the market, designed and dimensioned from the very outset to be able to accommodate diesel power.
It is an all aluminium five-cylinder engine with 20 valves and double overhead camshafts. In all but one late version it has a VGT turbocharger of the type VNT (Variable Nozzle Turbine), common rail direct injection and cooled exhaust gas recirculation.
There are three generations of D5 engines. The first generation was introduced in 2001; the second generation was introduced in 2005 and the third was introduced in 2009. The second generation got a slight reduction in stroke and has a reduced compression ratio, a water-cooled VNT turbocharger with a bigger compressor and an electric servo motor to adjust the vanes, an improved EGR system, a throttle valve, revised intake and exhaust ports and a newer generation of common-rail direct injection with improved injectors. The third generation got a further reduction in compression ratio, a two-stage turbo system (D5244T10), an improved EGR system socks over football cleats, revised intake and exhaust ports and a newer generation of common-rail direct injection with higher pressure and piezoelectric injectors.
Volvo has a special version of the D5 for use in the C30, S40
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, V50 and C70 models that produces 180 hp and 400 Nm of torque (reduced to 350 Nm with automatic transmission). The engine compartments of these cars are smaller so among other things the engine has a different air intake system, different exhaust system, smaller charge air cooler and a smaller radiator.
The D5244T is also offered as a marine engine by Volvo Penta under the name D3. The marinised engine is in large parts identical to D5244T. This includes crankshaft, pistons, camshafts, valves unusual football shirts, cylinder block, cylinder head, turbo, injectors and the high pressure pump. The D3 ECU has a modified software, which e.g. gives a modified torque suited for marine applications and has a simplified starting sequence. The hardware differences between D5244T and D3 are: a water-cooled inter-cooler, a water-cooled exhaust manifold, a heavier monolithic crankwheel, a seawater-pump and a heat exchanger. The output is 110 hp (82 kW) at 3,000 rpm, 130 hp, 160 hp, 190 hp, 220 hp (160 kW) at 4,000 rpm and it is coupled to a duoprop I/O system.
In autumn of 2013 the new Volvo Engine Architecture was introduced in the S60/V60 models. That is the successor of the Volvo D5 engine and that engine will step by step replace the Volvo D5 engine. 2017 you can only buy a Volvo D5 engine (140/162 kW) in the AWD versions of the V60 and the XC60. All other models (both diesel and petrol), are replaced with the new Volvo Engine Architecture.
Note: ‘D5’ is branding. All these engines share the five-cylinder block, although not all consistently used the ‘D5’ badge over time. This is due to changes in hardware and the specific model the engine was deployed in. E.g. On the S60 -05 range, the D5244T was labelled ‘D5’, and subsequently the D5244T5 was labelled ‘2.4D’ as a (software) detuned version of the D5244T4 ‘D5’ on the 05-09 range.